Bohdana V. Ostrovska

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava Volume 30 (2019),
419-425 p.

DOI: 10.33663/0869-2491-2019-30-419-425

Bohdana V. Ostrovska. The right to life protection in the context of the solution of actual bioethical problems in international law

Scientific and technological progress in biology, medicine, genetics, in particular in the field of assisted reproductive technology, cloning, abortion, euthanasia, the use of human anatomical materials (its organs, tissues, cells and blood) for research purposes, donation and transplantation, made it necessary to study the problems of bioethics, that arose under the influence of such achievements.Public discussion regarding the comparison of the benefits and ethical acceptability of the above-mentioned achievements of progress in biomedicine in relation to humans necessitated the solution of existing problems in the area of international law.

The study of international legal acts relating to the right to life in the field of bioethics makes it possible to formulate the following conclusions and proposals. In particular, stresses the importance of: fixing the moment of human life origin in the international law; fixing the international legal status of the human embryo; prohibition of eugenic practices; restriction of the right to life on prenatal stage of human development by equal right to life of the mother; prohibition of the use of embryonic stem cells and other human embryonic materials for scientific, medical, cosmetic and other purposes; development of therapy with alternative sources of stem cells: own stem cells of the adult organism, as well as stem cells of the cord blood and placenta; prohibition of both reproductive and therapeutic human cloning; prohibition of human biotechnological improvement through the use of innovative technologies for improving of its physical or intellectual qualities; prohibition of genetic manipulation at the prenatal stage of human development, threatening future generations of mankind (in particular, the creation of chimeras, hybrids, mutants); limitation of human genetic material manipulations with therapeutic, diagnostic or preventive purposes; prohibition of euthanasia (both active forms - assisted suicide and passive - mercy-killing); development of palliative care as an alternative to euthanasia; unification of legal regulation of donation and transplantation; creation of international donor registers; determination of the legal status of the human body and its parts; prohibition of human organs and tissues sale at the level of universal international law.
Taking into account the differences between the national legal acts of the states concerning the problems of bioethics, it is considered appropriate to unify them at the level of international law. The questions of the ratification of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe and its Additional Protocols, as well as the need for the adoption of a new Additional Protocol on protection the human embryo and fetus, are remaining open. In addition, the adoption by the UN General Assembly of the Convention on Human Cloning is important at the time.

Since human life is the highest value, all the achievements of mankind, the emergence of which is driven by scientific and technological progress, should be directed at its preservation.

Key words: scientific and technological progress, international law, right to life, bioethics.

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