Yearly journal of scientific articles “Pravova derzhava” Volume 30 (2019),
Lvova O. L. The Idea of power in the Reformation: Jan Hus, Martin Luther, Jean Calvin.
The article explores ideas about the power of such great reformers as Jan Hus, Martin Luther and John Calvin.
In different historical epochs, different nationalities had their own revolutionary and trans¬formational processes that reformed all social life. So, at one time, Europe was experiencing a decline in church, education, economics, and power in general, the destruction of all spiritual and valuable, which has long served as the foundation for the construction of society and the state. The reason for this was the total power of the church over man and state, and the fear of it was imposed on it. The Reformation of 1517 contributed to the return to spiritual origins in the understanding of state power and law that revived European civilization. Therefore, the correct assessment of this period is very important for understanding the whole history of Europe.
It is noted that the Reformation of 1517 opened the way to asserting the authority of a person, his rights and freedoms and recognition of his priority over state interests. Human well-being and the public good began to be recognized as the goal of state activity, which contributed to the limitation of its power.
The problem of power in this period was considered in the context of the church, since it was at that time that the church at that time owned the supreme authority, which abused, disre¬garding the natural rights and human dignity. Christian thinkers and associates, exposing such abuses, took it to the plane of secular power, speaking of the limits of power, of the character of the ruler, of human freedom and public good.
Summing up the main slogans of the reformers about power, their single value content and a single goal, which is, in particular, is as follows: first, the priority was given to the value of the individual, his rights and freedoms over power in accordance with the Biblical doctrine; secondly, it was boldly denounced the abuse of church clerics, as their immense power over all people was denied, both materially and spiritually; thirdly, proclaimed the right of the people to the possibility of their influence on secular and spiritual power, which laid the foundations for the development of European civilization; Fourthly, the idea was expressed the advantages of secular authority over the spiritual, but subject to the affirmation of secular authority on the principles of the Holy Scriptures; fifth, clear limits of power interference in people’s lives were established (natural public good, conscience, and human freedom); Sixth, based on the biblical conception of human sin, reformists, with the aim of preventing tyranny, argued for the idea of restraining power, in particular, by dividing it into legislative, executive, and judicial.
Keywords: power, state, person, rights and freedoms, Reformation, church.
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