Yearly journal of scientific articles “Pravova derzhava” Volume 30 (2019),
Sunegin S. Legal ideology: the material and spiritual factors of formation and development in the context of modern realities
In the proposed article, the author at the general theoretical level examines the main ma¬terial and spiritual factors of the formation and development of legal ideology in the context of modern liberal-and-democratic realities. The basis of modern legal ideology in a democratic society is a liberal paradigm of social and state development, or, if simpler, liberalism. Liber¬alism, as an ideological macro-system, the basis of which is the value of individualism, and, therefore, the guarantee and inviolability of human rights, freedoms and interests, requires its ideological and value substantiation and development in the corresponding forms of material and spiritual culture.
If we talk about the material culture of society, its values are embodied primarily in the economy, that is, in the aggregate of relations in the sphere of production, distribution, ex¬change and consumption of material goods. Given the fact that liberalism is based on the values of individualism, its economic (material) foundation forms the capitalist system of the economy, and consequently, the sacred, inviolable nature of private property, freedom of busi¬ness and the legal (formal) equality of the participants in the relevant relations. Due to indi¬vidualist nature of liberalism, private property in modern legal ideology is postulated as being inseparable from personality and that is why it is subject to comprehensive legal protection along with an individual. At the same time, the liberal legal ideology gives private property a special economic content, which manifests itself in the system of social exchange and trans¬forms it into capital, that is, the so-called “working” property, the rights of which provide an opportunity to profit. It is with this quality of private property is linked another value of modern legal ideology – freedom of entrepreneurship, which in the current realities is perhaps the single most important condition for the self-realization of a person in society, is the basis for obtaining certain preferences, including in the form of multiplication of the property.
Private property and freedom of business in the modern legal ideology are organically supplemented by one more important value – the legal (formal) equality of participants in pub¬lic relations. Due to the fact that legal equality is always a formal equality that does not take into account or recognizes the insignificant diversity of the sociocultural context and other fea¬tures of the functioning of societies, as well as human nature, modern legal ideology recognizes the real (in fact) inequality of economic status by the embodiment of justice, substantiating this formally defined equality of starting opportunities for self-realization of the person and its full responsibility for the use of these opportunities.
If we talk about the spiritual aspect of culture under the conditions of liberalism, its basis, due to the absolute primacy of individualism, is the principle of freedom of conscience, that is, the natural right of man to independently form and develop his convictions, ideals, values, knowledge, etc. Freedom of conscience in liberal legal ideology means moral freedom in its broad sense or freedom of manners, which includes both individual and collective manifesta¬tions of moral and immoral behavior as a result of the erosion of the established (traditional) criteria for distinguishing between good and evil and their derivative concepts and social phenomena. Law, in this way, gradually assumes the objectively non-inherent function of de¬termining what is or can be moral, and what is not.
It is concluded that modern legal ideology is based on the materialist outlook, because the values of liberalism, which determine and direct its development, are limited to the sphere of material existence, and ideal phenomena, such as consciousness, will, morality, etc., are de¬rived from the peculiarities of the functioning and development of material relations in society. Being deeply individualistic in its direction, modern legal ideology substantially transforms the traditional content of the spiritual culture of society, which is deprived of deep transcen¬dental, above-person basis, and becomes a rational-pragmatic system of corresponding ideas, principles and norms, aimed at providing formal conditions, within which an individual can to exercise his freedom, the restriction of which is possible only on the basis of formalized legal procedures.
Key words: legal ideology, liberalism, moral, private property, free enterprise, freedom of conscience.
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