Zahynei Zoia

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava Volume 30 (2019),
343-352 p.

DOI: 10.33663/0869-2491-2019-30-343-352

Zahynei Zoia. Victim in article 46 of the Criminal code of Ukraine: some problems of interpretation

The article analyzes the concept of victim, compensation of damages and elimination of harm caused in the context of the provisions of Art. 46 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. It is concluded that the victim in this article is advisable to recognize not a participant in criminal proceedings, but a direct victim of a criminal offense, that is, a person who is the victim of a criminal offense. Therefore, the victim can not recognize the close relatives of the victim who died and who was acknowledged as a victim in a criminal proceeding on the basis of Part 6 of Art. 55 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine. In addition, given the provisions of Art. 46 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, it is impossible to indemnify damages and to eliminate the damage caused in case of committing a crime which resulted in the death of the victim. After all, this contradicts the restitution of the positive post-criminal behavior of the person provided for in art. 46 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.

The closure of criminal proceedings in connection with the reconciliation of the guilty party with the victim in case of death of the latter contradicts the spirit of the law, norms of morality and ethics. In addition, the maintenance of the opposite approach actually means that close relatives of the victim who died and who were found to have suffered in a criminal proceeding on the basis of Part 6 of Art. 55 CPC, passes not only the rights of the victim, but also his will, which is at least absurd. If there is no actual victim, he / she has died, then no other person can express his will in resolving the criminal procedural issues, including not being able to reconcile with the victims in the sense of Art. 46 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.

Appropriate restriction on the use of Art. 46 The Criminal Code does not in any way restrict the rights of the victims successor, who, on the basis of legal fiction, is actually recognized as a victim in a criminal proceeding. After all, such a fictitious victim within the framework of restorative justice may be party to an agreement on reconciliation between the victim and the suspect (Part 4 of Article 56, Clause 1, Part 3, Article 314, Part 3, Article 394, Part 2 of Art. 407, part 3, article 424, articles 468, 469, 471, 473-476 of the CCP), which is a criminal procedural institution and is separated from the release from criminal responsibility in connection with the reconciliation of the perpetrator and the victim.

Key words: victim, reconciliation, release from criminal liability, restitution, compensation of damages, elimination of harm caused.

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