Sofinska Iryna

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava Volume 31 (2020), 122-133 p.

Sofinska Iryna. The nordic saga of citizenship

The modern concept of citizenship is undergoing a gradual transformation under the influence of significant geopolitical changes, permanent civilizational, globalization, and migration challenges. No longer is citizenship an exclusive legal sign indicating that an individual is a part (subject) of a particular State because a meaningful and understandable paradigm is changing. An individual as a citizen becomes increasingly essential, valuable for every democratic State. The country of his/her birth might not be the same as the country of origin or country of citizenship.He/she can claim rights or privileges inside and outside the country (extra-territorial) in a reciprocal way. 

As the primary motivation of this article is to explore the peculiarities of citizenship in Nordic countries after the global migration crisis in Europe during 20152016. All of them are shortlisted in few important indexes globally in 2017 (World Happiness Index, Visa Restriction Index, etc.). All of them have a very high GDP nominal per capita, which demonstrates a practical application of homo-centric concept, guaranteeing human rights, prosperity, and stability. 

The article highlights the achievements of those scholars (R. Bellamy, G.-R. De Groot, Ch. Joppke, W. Kymlicka, L. Orgad, P. Spiro, P. Shuck, P. Veil and others) who earlier explored the value paradigm of citizenship and the legal identity of an individual in the context of globalization, migration, and human rights. Relevant analytical and statistical expert reports and forecasts provide clear guidance for further modernization of intelligent segmentation of citizenship models and elements.

The trajectory of a traditional vision of citizenship in Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and Sweden) changed from 'undeserved right' to 'earned privilege'. This transformation can be viewed in gender-biased nationality laws, dual nationality clauses, specific features of filiation, preconditions of naturalization, requirements of citizenship termination, etc.

Key words: citizenship, right to citizenship, naturalization, Nordic states, dual citizenship, participatory democracy.

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