Yearly journal of scientific articles “Pravova derzhava” Volume 33 (2022), 164-173 p.
Bohinich O. Lawmaking – separate ontological and epistemological principles
The article considers the infl uence of ontological and epistemological principles of law on law-making processes. In the context of this approach, modern views of scholars on the problems of ontology of law are studied. In particular, it is argued that real social relations, which in the process of human development have acquired legal features (became a source of law), are the basis of law, ie the existence of law is based on the real material world in its social dimension. In other words, the ontology of law has its material mode of existence. At the same time, today the law is understood not only as a mold of material relations, which through the rules of law aff ects social relations, but law is also considered as certain matrices (images of law) in the minds of individuals who creatively apply them in assessing relations. as legal.
Based on the above, it is logical to conclude that the existence of law in addition to its material form (social relations) has at the same time an ideal form – legal awareness. That is, the thesis of the ideal mode of ontology of law has the property of scientifi c truth, as well as its opposite in content thesis. In other words, we can state that the existence of law exists in both its ideal and material form. Thus, we observe a certain synthesis of these two approaches to understanding the existence (ontology) of law.
This conclusion has an important methodological nature for lawmaking, as the latter is a specifi c epistemological means of theoretical refl ection of legal reality, which exists in two modes - material and ideal. Material and ideal modes direct the legislator (in the broad sense of the term) to search for those social relations that are characterized primarily by their typicality and longevity. The second step will be to verify their compliance with basic legal values, as it is known that illegal relationships between certain individuals and their groups can also be long-term and typical. The ideal mode of existence of law involves the presence in the human mind of certain matrices (images of law). In particular, the latter include such legal values as goodness and justice.
Despite a certain relativism of these concepts, given their historical nature, it can be argued that they are a guide in giving certain relationships (patterns of behavior) the nature of legal. In this regard, the task of the legislator in the mediation of social relations will be to fi nd in the material and / or spiritual spheres of existence of the right of its own values and further implementation of the found in real social relations through appropriate lawmaking procedures.
Key words: ontology of law, epistemology of law, phenomenology of law, material and ideal modes of existence of law.
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