Muzyka Iryna

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava Volume 31 (2020), 144-154 p.

Muzyka Iryna. Political ideology in the legislation of the UkrSSR 19501960: anthropological aspect

In modern legal science, the anthropological approach that makes it possible to investigate, in particular, the orientation of the right to the human problem in law becomes of great relevance.

In the perspective of legal anthropology, an important issue is the status of a person in the state mechanism (the place of the person in the hierarchy of values, the scope and guarantees of his rights and freedoms, the duties of the person) within the relation of state-centrism and anthropocentrism in the normative acts of the UkrSSR authorities of the post-war period.

The draft Constitution of the UkrSSR in 1964 provided for a change in the legal status of the inpidual in the UkrSSR. For the first time in the history of "Soviet constitutional law" the concept of "freedom of the inpidual" was introduced, the whole complex of citizens' rights was revised, some new categories of rights were introduced, such as the supreme and fundamental human rights, the mechanism of their guarantees by society and the state was first laid. It was envisaged to consolidate various forms of direct exercise of political power by citizens, to create new forms of influence of citizens on the state power in general. Thus, in the early 1960s, the Soviet state had the potential to change qualitatively if the new UkrSSR Constitution was adopted. Therefore, the dismissal of MS Khrushchev from the duties of the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR appears to be conditioned, including, by the radical significance of the Constitutional project, which has never been adopted.

It is possible to draw the following conclusion: in the period under study in the UkrSSR (as well as the USSR), the center of legal reality was not the person, but the norms of legal prescriptions of the state, formulated on the basis of political and ideological doctrine developed by the leadership of the CPSU Communist Party.

It is possible to characterize the status of a person under the legislation of 19501960 as a result of the implementation in the normative acts of political and ideological guidelines of the leadership of the CPSU CPU. According to the communist ideology of that time, the life of society was regarded as the existence of the entire population of inpiduals, masses of people, and therefore the decisive role in the life of society belongs not to inpidual inpiduals, but to their entire population. This meant a significant overriding of the "necessary" relative to the "freedom" of man, that is, the interests of party-state leadership, collective interests over the interests of the inpidual; the non-recognition of the inpidual sovereignty of a person who was largely considered part of the collective subject the "masses"; lack of reconciliation of interests of inpiduals and the state, which in many cases gave rise to conflict situations.

Key words: legislation of the UkrSSR 19501960, anthropology of law, state-centrism, anthropocentrism.

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