Hurova Anna, Kirpachova Maria

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava Volume 32 (2021),
288-296 p.

Hurova Anna, Kirpachova Maria. State regulation of space activity by using Blockchain.

This research is aimed at detecting legal and organizational requirements for the Blockchain application in State regulation of space activity. The most precise attention is focused on considering the compliance with the space authorization requirements, ensuring the registration of space objects and the implementation of foreign trade agreements within the space sector of the economy.

The research is based on results of the previous in-depth study conducted by the authors, which was dedicated to the legal nature of the DLT (distributed ledger technologies), and in particular its most popular example Blockchain, the basic elements and models of the technology, the main spheres of its application in the framework of space activity in order to guarantee realization of rights and compliance with obligations of public and private space actors in the process of conducting the outer space activities, as well as legislative innovations to regulate the utilization of the Blockchain in different countries, as well as international standards and practices and promising legal mechanisms. Thus, the authors created logical preconditions to cover in this publication the prospects of state regulation of space activities in Ukraine using the Blockchain technology.

The authors consider usage of different types of Blockchain ledgers (public ledger with authorized access and with/without special validator) to implement different tasks in the process of regulating space activities, such as guaranteeing fulfillment of conditions of foreign economic agreements on the basis of smart contracts concluded between business entities and for maintaining the state register of space objects.

The research proposes several scenarios that are acceptable both in terms of technical characteristics of Blochchain and legal requirements under which a number of central authorities can exercise their powers to regulate space activities using distributed ledger technologies.

In addition, the study demonstrates an effective mechanism for ensuring the allocation of responsibility for the registration of space objects between the owners of the launch vehicle and payload to prevent situations when the spacecraft remains unregistered in orbit as a result of non-compliance with contractual obligations or non-inclusion of certain clauses in such agreements.

The model agreements between Ukrainian and foreign space actors are proposed to be implemented by governmental institutions and used as a preventing instrument, according to which a conflict of laws can be solved and the state responsible for registering space objects in the Blockchain Network can be defined.

Key words: Blockchain, smart contract, essential terms of the contract, standard agreement, registration of space objects, authorization activity.


1. Poriadok vydachi (vidmovy u vydachi, anuliuvannia) dozvoliv na provadzhennia okremykh vydiv kosmichnoi diialnosti: Postanova KMU vid 26 liutoho 2020 r. 197. URL : [uk]. 2. Hurova A.M., Kirpachova M.O. Pravovi zasady zastosuvannia Blokchein u kosmichnii diialnosti: kliuchovi elementy ta modeli orhanizatsii tekhnolohii. Pidpryiemnytstvo, hospodarstvo i pravo, 9. 2020. S. 2430. [uk]. 3. Jack Wright Nelson. Lost in Space? Gaps in the International Space Object Registration Regime: URL : 4. Rezoliutsiia 39/248 Heneralnoi Asamblei OON "Kerivni pryntsypy dlia zakhystu interesiv spozhyvachiv". URL : [uk]. 5. SpaceX. Space Exploration Technologies Corp. Launch Services Agreement. URL : 6. Hospodarskyi kodeks Ukrainy. URL : [uk]. 7. Pro kosmichnu diialnist: Zakon Ukrainy. URL : [uk]. 8. Tsyvilnyi kodeks Ukrainy. URL : [uk]. 9. Pro mizhnarodne pryvatne pravo: Zakon Ukrainy. URL : [uk]. 10. Pro kosmichnu diialnist: Zakon Ukrainy. URL : [uk]. 11. Deiaki pytannia Ministerstva z pytan stratehichnykh haluzei promyslovosti Ukrainy: Postanova KMU vid 7 veresnia 2020 r. 819. URL : [uk]. 12. Pro zatverdzhennia Polozhennia pro Derzhavne kosmichne ahentstvo Ukrainy: Postanova KMU vid 14 travnia 2015 r. 281. URL : [uk]. 13. Pro kosmichnu diialnist: Zakon Ukrainy. URL :; Upravlinnia informatsiinykh tekhnolohii Ministerstva oborony Ukrainy. URL : [uk]. 14. Polozhennia pro derzhavnu sluzhbu eksportnoho kontroliu Ukrainy. URL : [uk]. 15.  Pro otsinku vplyvu na dovkillia: Zakonu Ukrainy. URL : [uk].

<< Back