Yearly journal of scientific articles “Pravova derzhava” Volume 32 (2021),
Ivanova Anastasiia. Legal Nature of the “Veto” in Ukraine and the World: historical and comparative essay.
On classical sources, the author traced and compared the history of the formation and development of the institution of veto in ancient Rome, in medieval England, France, the Commonwealth. Particular attention is paid to the development of the institution of veto on Ukrainian lands.
The author comes to the conclusion about the different legal nature of the veto in the medieval Western European and Eastern European traditions.
The Eastern European tradition corresponds to the veto, the peculiarity of which is consensual in nature and the use of the legislature. The principle of consensual decision-making is inherent in the Western European tradition - in the English Parliament, decision-making by consensus has always been desirable. However, in Eastern European practice, it has become mandatory. In medieval society, consensus could exist as long as it was not denied by a minority. Historical experience has demonstrated the shortcomings of this approach and the dangers to the political and legal system in the case of its instrumentalization. Subsequently, the principle of consensus evolved towards the development of the majority principle.
The second type of veto should be considered in the context of ensuring a balance of power, it is part of the mechanism of checks and balances, a tool to limit the legislature and strengthen the executive branch. The purpose of this mechanism is to find a balance of power between different spheres of power, which will correspond to the balance of power in a particular society at the moment. Therefore, there is no and obviously cannot be an ideal veto mechanism - in different states the forms of its implementation differ, depending on the distribution of powers between participants in the political process.
Key words: Ukraine, veto, liberum veto, president, parliament, powers, consensus.
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