Kulynych Pavlo

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava Volume 32 (2021),
257-267 p.

Kulynych Pavlo. Digitalization of land relations and law in Ukraine: methodological and theoretical aspects.  

The article examines the methodological and theoretical issues of the formation of legal support for the digitalization of land relations in Ukraine. The author points out that the digitalization of land relations causes "profound" changes in their legal regulation and determines the clarification of the basic principles of land law of Ukraine. Thus, with the adoption of the Law "On National Infrastructure of Geospatial Data" laid the beginning of the formation in the land legislation of Ukraine the principle of availability of public data on land, which symbolizes the beginning of the era of digitalization of land relations. The essence of this principle is that all information provided by law and created in the process of maintaining the relevant state registers of land and related natural and other resources (geospatial data) as a multifaceted object of land and other legal relations are available to subjects of such legal relations in real time in the official form and to the extent that such access is provided by the computer equipment and software used by such subjects.

As stated in the Concept of Development of the Digital Economy and Society of Ukraine for 20182020, digitization is the saturation of the physical world with electronic-digital devices, tools, systems and electronic communication between them, which actually allows integrated interaction of virtual and physical, ie creates  cyberphysical space. In our opinion, this definition of digitization cannot be considered as correct. Firstly, saturation of the physical world with electronic-digital devices, means, systems and the establishment of electronic-communication exchange between them is neither the essence nor the purpose of digitalization, but is only a way to implement it. After all, the saturation of the physical world with electronic-digital devices can lead to any social result both positive and negative.  Secondly, the provision of integrated interaction of virtual and physical - the creation of cyberphysical space does not indicate how such cyberphysical space differs from ordinary physical space, in which social relations arise and are regulated by law.  Therefore, the concept of digitalization needs to be clarified taking into account the specifics of the legal regulation of land relations.

It is proved that the legal norms regulating the digitalization of public relations are an integral part of the administrative, civil, land and other branches of law. The conclusion is substantiated that the legal infrastructure of digitalization of land relations includes legal support for: 1) collection and formation of a system of information about the land using its remote sensing; 2) formation of promptly updated land databases; 3) the formation of a system of registers, portals and other service mechanisms that guarantee and provide access to such databases and the use of information about land in land legal relations.

The author proves that legal support for digitalization of land relations is their legal regulation, the basic basis of which is information about the land (data-based legal regulation), which with the help of appropriate software includes the dynamics of qualitative and quantitative state of land in the mechanism of legal regulation of land relations, transforming this dynamic  in such dynamics of land legal relations at which negative and positive changes in a condition of the earths automatically cause emergence, change, specification of the rights and duties of their subjects and form preconditions for application of the legal influence provided by the legislation on those subjects whose activity or inaction  caused negative consequences in the condition of the lands.

Finaly analysis of the modern system of land information required to ensure the digitization of land relations, gives grounds to identify such key components of its legal infrastructure as: 1) collection and formation of a system of such information through remote sensing of land (remote sensing); 2) formation of operatively updated land databases;  3) formation of a system of registers, portals and other service mechanisms, which guarantee and provide access to such databases and the use of information about land in land relations.  Each of the selected elements of the system of information use in the process of digitization of land relations has a special legal mechanism.

Key words: land, land relations, agriculture, digitalization, law.

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