Malysheva Nataliia

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava Volume 32 (2021),
245-257 p.

Malysheva Nataliia. Cybersecurity of space activities and the possibility of ensuring it by means of international law

Introduction. Cybersecurity of space activities is the area of ​​legal regulation that appeared on the agenda only a few decades ago, but due to the rapid development of negative impact on the cyber infrastructure of the space sector confidently comes to the fore in finding ways to protect space activities from destruction or damage.

The aim of the article. The purpose of this article is to identify both opportunities and limitations in solving problems of cybercrime in outer space by legal means, taking into account primarily the context of international law.

Results. Both outer space and cyberspace know no national borders, and are multinational in terms of their scale of influence, so the ways to prevent cybercrime in outer space must firstly be structured at the international level. Dozens of international organizations have so far included cyberspace security in their field of activities. At the same time, almost all researches conducted under the auspices of various international organizations have reached a unanimous opinion: at the present stage, there is no possibility to develop a comprehensive international legal instrument in the field of cybersecurity. The most effective and efficient in terms of the orientation for states to the use of certain means of combating cybercrime, including in outer space field, was the so-called Tallinn Manual on International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, elaborated under the auspices of the NATO Cyber Security Center. The focus of the Manual is on recommendations on the possibility of applying to cyberattacks the international responsibility provisions provided by other branches of international law, namely the international law of armed conflicts, space, sea, air laws and others. At the same time, it is important to realize that the problem of legal regulation of cybersecurity of outer space presently cannot be solved exclusively by means of international law. Because cyber threats are diverse, fragmented, difficult to identify, and sometimes with uncontrolled consequences, international cooperation and information exchange must be combined with national legislation.

Conclusions. With the progressive growth of cyberattacks, which pose a risk of damage or even destruction of critical space infrastructure, the focus of increased attention of the world community is the development of legal means that would prevent or at least reduce cyber threats to this important area. Given that 90% of cybercrimes are international by nature, international organizations and researchers have focused primarily on finding ways to prevent cyber attacks and eliminate their consequences, including international responsibility, through international law. Taking into account the limitations of direct treaty international legal regulation in the relevant field, today's level of legal understanding focuses mainly on the application to the cybersphere of the current rules and disposals of traditional branches of international law. At the same time, the national legislation of each state, built in accordance with the national cybersecurity strategy taking into account its own needs, the specifics of critical infrastructure, its protection priorities, etc., should play an extraordinary role in regulating the relevant sphere.

Key words: cybersecurity, cybercrime, space activities, critical space infrastructure, international law, national legislation.

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