Onishchuk Mykola, Samofal Maryna

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava Volume 32 (2021),
179-190 p.

Onishchuk Mykola, Samofal Maryna. Declaring the act unconstitutional and extraordinary review of the court decision: problems of law enforcement.

The article considers the problem of the balance between the principle of legal certainty and effective protection of individual rights in court cases, where the trial ended with a final court decision, in light of declaring laws and other acts unconstitutional. The issue of validity of decisions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine in time is therefore discussed in the article.

The authors emphasize Supreme Court statement that the possibility to review a court decision in exceptional circumstances (if it is not executed only) is based on the principle of legal certainty, and the unconstitutionality of the law is important, first of all, as a general decision. It determines the legal position for resolving the following cases, and not as a basis for retrospective application of the new legal position and thus change the state of legal certainty already established by the final court decision.

The article points out that declaring the law unconstitutional indicates a mistake on the part of the state and undermines confidence in the court decision. The public interest in eliminating doubts about the legality and validity of a court decision prevails over the public interest, which is manifested in compliance with the principle of legal certainty.

It is underlined that the duty of the state is to ensure human rights and freedoms within the framework of the right to judicial protection and fair trial. The purpose of extraordinary procedures for reviewing a court decision is to restore violated constitutional rights and freedoms. Legal provisions on the possibility of reviewing not executed court decisions only, limit the guaranteed right to judicial protection and makes it impossible to implement the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine.

Constitutional complaint is equated to a complaint against the state to the European Court of Human Rights (he ECtHR), as it concerns the application of an unconstitutional law by a court (state). Procedural Codes of Ukraine stipulate that if the ECtHR finds the violation of Ukraines international obligations in resolving a case by a court, it is the ground for reviewing a court decision that has entered into force and is final. Therefore, the conclusion is made that the law is inconsecutive.

In the light of the principles of the rule of law and responsibility of the state before a person there is a need to change the legislative regulation on review of court decisions in connection with the constitutionality of a law, other legal act or their separate provision, applied (not applied) by the court in the case. It is offered to introduce the institute of circumstances of a substantial and compelling character that influenced the outcome of the case as the ground for reviewing a court decision in exceptional circumstances declaring the act unconstitutional, to Ukrainian procedural codes. 

Key words: the principle of legal certainty, restore of rights, review of judgement in exceptional circumstances, declaring the act unconstitutional.

References

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