Yearly journal of scientific articles “Pravova derzhava” Volume 32 (2021),
Sevryukova Inna. Problems of the definition and characteristics of the contractual basis for the limitation and encumbrance of ownership of real estate in Ukraine
Introduction. The legal description of the contractual grounds for restrictions and encumbrances on the right of ownership of real estate can be provided only after a comprehensive study of the common features of the contractual structures, which establish the relevant rights and obligations of the parties. The main common feature of such agreements is the emergence of appropriate property benefits for the owner, which is to enable the owner to satisfy their interests at the expense of someone else's real estate, resulting in restrictions and encumbrances on property subject to the contract.
It should also be emphasized that each subjective right has its limits of exercise, including the subjective right of ownership, as well as other real property rights. Of course, the nature of such restrictions must be different and depend on the content and nature of the restricted right, its object and the grounds for the restrictions. That is, restrictions on property rights and other property rights cannot be the same. Restrictions on property rights are established in the interests of society and arise by law, as well as in the interests of individuals (on the basis of law, contract, court decision), and restrictions on other property rights are primarily due to protection of the property from which they originate and the legitimate interests of the owner. In our opinion, the category of real contracts should include those types of contracts relating to real estate, including contracts of encumbrance of property rights on the basis of which the rights subject to state registration arise.
Purpose and objectives of the study The main common feature of such agreements is the emergence of appropriate property benefits for the owner, which is to enable the owner to satisfy their interests at the expense of someone else's real estate, resulting in restrictions and encumbrances on property subject to the contract. Therefore, we can argue for the existence of a certain generalizing type of contract, the features of which are inherent in all its subspecies, in particular, contracts for the establishment of easements, superficies, emphyteusis, mortgage agreement. Such an agreement in the legal literature is called by some authors as a real contract. However, issues concerning its legal nature, place in the system of civil law contracts remain debatable.
Research methods. The research carried out in the article is based on the assessment of generally accepted approaches to defining the characteristic features of problematic issues of contractual grounds for the emergence of restrictions and encumbrances of property rights to real estate. It should be emphasized that these issues are controversial due to the lack of clear legislative regulation, which leads to imperfect legal regulation and violations of the rights of participants in property turnover.
Research conclusions. As a result of the study, the idea is given that in the current legislation of Ukraine due to the lack of a clear concept of the relationship between the category of "encumbrance" and "restriction" of property rights, as well as the uncertainty of property rights, some questions remain about the classification of certain rights accordingly, about the types of material contract, this issue is debatable and needs further study. It is possible to make about polystructurality of the real contract that causes division of this type of the civil law contract into kinds and subspecies. In our opinion, such a division depends on the legal nature and scope of the relevant types of restrictions and encumbrances on the right of ownership of real estate, which are proposed by current civil law.
Key words: real contract, contractual basis for the emergence of restrictions and encumbrances of ownership of real estate, restrictions and encumbrances of ownershið, the system of civil law contracts.
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