Yearly journal of scientific articles “Pravova derzhava”
Volume 34 (2023), 112-120 p.
Bohinich Oleg. The right to peace: a question of genesis
The extraordinary events related to the Russian Federation conducting a so-called «special operation» on the territory of Ukraine demonstrated the weakness of international mechanisms for the protection and maintenance of peace, the disregard of the peoples' right to peace. The latter right, despite numerous declarations adopted by the United Nations for its protection (more than six), has been repeatedly violated by individual states, including members of the Security Council, over the past decades. This indicates insufficient attention on the part of the scientific community to the issues of ensuring the right to peace, the lack of verified scientific proposals to improve the situation in this area, which cannot be fully done without a retrospective analysis of the genesis of this right.
The purpose of the study is to identify the metaphysical foundations of the antipode of the right to peace – the right to war and to study the genesis of the right to peace in historical retrospect.
Research methods are historical-legal, phenomenological, anthropological. As a result of the use of the mentioned methods, it was established that the law of war is a projection of the law of force, which is interpreted as the presence of advantages in a certain category of persons – from individual individuals to their associations. With the development of civilization, the legality of the law of war began to be limited by the emergence of the right of nations to peace, which took shape in the writings of individual scientists.
Among the latter are Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, the Dutch scientist Erasmus of Rotterdam, the English pacifist William Penn, the French abbot Charles de Saint-Pierre, and the German philosopher Emmanuel Kant. Most of them in their works professed not only the ideology of peace, but also proposed specific mechanisms that should be involved in order to achieve this goal. The main means, from their point of view, were the presence of a republican form of government and treaties concluded between states that form the newly created international law. In addition, it was proposed to create international organizations that will take care of issues of maintaining peace and preventing conflicts between states. Examples of the creation of such organizations were the League of Nations and the United Nations, which replaced the first.
As can be seen from the above, humanity is tired of living in the conditions of wars from which it suffers, it has earned its right to peace through its history, and the main condition for coexistence between peoples is recognized as the necessity of their relationship to each other as a good neighbor. It is clear that there can be no military conflicts between good neighbors, that all disputes must be resolved on the basis of equality and respect for each other, regardless of the size of the territories and population.
Key words: the right to peace, the right to war, the right to force, international mechanisms for the protection of the right to peace.
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