Kubko Andrii

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava
Volume 34 (2023), 101-111 p.

DOI: 10.33663/1563-3349-2023-34-101-111

Kubko Andrii. Proportionality of the Restrictions of Human Rights: Specifics during Martial Law

The article is dedicated to the issue of proportionality of the restrictions of human rights and freedoms during martial law in Ukraine. The concept of the protection of human rights is the core value of any democratic state, it has been developed both in the legal system of Ukraine and at the international law level. The legislation of Ukraine as well as the international standards of the human rights protection contain requirements of the proportionality of the restrictions of the rights of person. The proportionality is recognized as universal principle the restrictive measures of the states hould comply with. The proportionality principle applies also during martial law which has been enacted in the result of full-scale aggression of the Russian Federation. However in the situation of war this principle has certain specifics arising out of necessity to secure the defense of the state against the foreign military aggression. The specificity of the proportionality during martial law emanates from the characteristics of the public interests which are regarded as legitimate aim pursued by the restrictions of the human rights and freedoms applied by the state. Such interests relate to ensuring defense capability, security, territorial integrity, restoration of the states sovereignty over the territories of  Ukraine, combat armed aggression. The significance of these interests gives rise, in case of the threat to the said interests, to the necessity of employment of special, increased restrictions of the rights and freedoms by the state to prevent such threat. The circumstances of war also give rise to the issue of competition between public interests which constitute the legitimate aim of the states sovereign measures since the significance of the public interests which in the time of peace had been regarded as priority may decrease. Not only should the legal measures employed by the state for the protection of the public interests and restricting human rights correspond to the public interests pursued but also such measures should secure prevention of the potential threats to the public interests of the defense of the state which has acquired special significance during martial law.

Key words: principle of proportionality, martial law, human rights, the state,restrictions of human rights.

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