Yearly journal of scientific articles “Pravova derzhava”
Volume 34 (2023), 101-111 p.
Kubko Andrii. Proportionality of the Restrictions of Human Rights: Specifics during Martial Law
The article is dedicated to the issue of proportionality of the restrictions of human rights and freedoms during martial law in Ukraine. The concept of the protection of human rights is the core value of any democratic state, it has been developed both in the legal system of Ukraine and at the international law level. The legislation of Ukraine as well as the international standards of the human rights protection contain requirements of the proportionality of the restrictions of the rights of person. The proportionality is recognized as universal principle the restrictive measures of the states hould comply with. The proportionality principle applies also during martial law which has been enacted in the result of full-scale aggression of the Russian Federation. However in the situation of war this principle has certain specifics arising out of necessity to secure the defense of the state against the foreign military aggression. The specificity of the proportionality during martial law emanates from the characteristics of the public interests which are regarded as legitimate aim pursued by the restrictions of the human rights and freedoms applied by the state. Such interests relate to ensuring defense capability, security, territorial integrity, restoration of the state’s sovereignty over the territories of Ukraine, combat armed aggression. The significance of these interests gives rise, in case of the threat to the said interests, to the necessity of employment of special, increased restrictions of the rights and freedoms by the state to prevent such threat. The circumstances of war also give rise to the issue of competition between public interests which constitute the legitimate aim of the state’s sovereign measures since the significance of the public interests which in the time of peace had been regarded as priority may decrease. Not only should the legal measures employed by the state for the protection of the public interests and restricting human rights correspond to the public interests pursued but also such measures should secure prevention of the potential threats to the public interests of the defense of the state which has acquired special significance during martial law.
Key words: principle of proportionality, martial law, human rights, the state,restrictions of human rights.
1. Shemshuchenko Ju. S., Skrypnjuk O. V. Metodologhichni problemy vzajemodiji derzhavy i ghromadjansjkogho suspiljstva v suchasnij Ukrajini. Pravova derzhava. 2017.Vyp. 28. S. 3–12 [ukr.].
2. Parkhomenko N. M. Ljudynocentryzm jak sutnistj dijaljnosti derzhavy. Aljmanakh prava. 2017. Vyp. 8. S. 31–35 [ukr.].
3. Kriebaum U., Schreuer C.,Dolzer R., (2022). Principles of International Investment Law (3rd Edition). Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.
4. Shill S. W. (2015). International Investment Law and the Rule of Law.Rule of Law Symposium 2014: The Importance of the Rule of Law in Promoting Development. Singapore: Academy Publishing, 81-102.
5. Levashova Y. (2019). The Right of States to Regulate in International Investment Law: The Search for Balance Between Public Interest and Fair and Equitable Treatment. Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands:Kluwer Law International.
6. Titi A. (2014). The Right to Regulate in International Investment Law. Baden-Baden: Nomos and Hart Publishing.
7. Ucaryilmaz, T. (2021). The Principle of Proportionality in Modern Ius Gentium. Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, 36(1), 14–32.
8. Bogdel v. Lithuania: ECHR Judgment, 26 November 2013,§ 63. URL: https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-138559
9. Henckels S. (2013). Balancing Investment Protection and the Public Interest: The Role of the Standard of Review and the Importance of Deference in Investor-State Arbitration. Journal Of International Dispute Settlement, Volume 4, Issue 1, 197–215.
10. Radunović and Others v. Montenegro: ECHRJudgment, 25 October 2016, § 62.
11. Kingsbury B., Schill S. W. (2010). Public Law Concepts to Balance Investors’ Rightswith State Regulatory Actions in the Public Interest – The Concept of Proportionality, inInternational Investment Law and Comparative Public Law (Stephan Schill, ed., OxfordUniversity Press), 75–104. Ð. 86.
12. Postanova Verkhovnogho Sudu vid 05.06.2019 r. pospravi # 817/1555/16.
URL: https://reyestr.court.gov.ua/Review/82194394 [ukr.].
13. Kingsbury B., Schill S. W. (2009) Investor-State Arbitration as Governance: Fair andEquitable Treatment, Proportionality and the Emerging Global Administrative Law.International Law and Justice Working Paper 2009/6 (Global Administrative Law Series),1–53. Ð. 30.
14. Pro zabezpechennja zmicnennja nacionaljnoji bezpeky u sferi svobodysovisti ta dijaljnosti relighijnykh orghanizacij: proekt Zakonu Ukrajiny vid 24.11.2022 r.URL: https://itd.rada.gov.ua/billInfo/Bills/Card/40832 [ukr.].
15. Pro vnesennja zmin dodejakykh zakoniv Ukrajiny shhodo zakhystu fi nansovoji systemy Ukrajiny vid dij derzhavy,shho zdijsnjuje zbrojnu aghresiju proty Ukrajiny, ta adaptaciji zakonodavstva Ukrajiny dookremykh standartiv Ghrupy z rozrobky fi nansovykh zakhodiv borotjby z vidmyvannjamghroshej (FATF) i vymogh Dyrektyvy ES 2018/843: Zakon Ukrajiny vid 04.11.2022 r. #2736-IKh. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2736-20/print [ukr.].
16. Prozabezpechennja zakhystu nacionaljnykh interesiv za majbutnimy pozovamy derzhavyUkrajina u zv’jazku z vijsjkovoju aghresijeju Rosijsjkoji Federaciji: postanova KabinetuMinistriv Ukrajiny vid 03.03.2022 r. # 187. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/187-2022-p/print [ukr.].
17. Pro osnovni zasady prymusovogho vyluchennja v Ukrajini ob’jektivprava vlasnosti Rosijsjkoji Federaciji ta jiji rezydentiv: Zakon Ukrajiny vid 03.03.2022 r. #2116-IKh.
URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2116-20/print [ukr.].