Meniuk Daryna

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava
Volume 34 (2023), 475-484 p.

DOI: 10.33663/1563-3349-2023-34-475-484

Meniuk Daryna. The civil process of the European Union: concept and main Features

The article concerns the concept of the civil proves of the EU. So it is established that the system of civil procedure acts of the EU consists, on the one hand, of normative legal acts that regulate the general provisions of the process, and on the other hand, of those that establish direct cooperation between the member states of the Union for the proper implementation of judicial proceedings. Such a complex has created a single legal space within which cooperation enables effective resolution of civil and commercial disputes.

Analyzing the main characteristics of the EU civil process, it is noted that the policy of the EU is to respect the legal traditions of the member states, which do not violate EU law and the practice of the European Court of Human Rights. In view of this, unification of court procedures and their implementation on the basis of uniform principles.

Given the broad nature of the EU civil process, it is specified that its place should not be narrowed down to an institution of private international law. In particular, this is due to that EU law has an independent and at the same time integrative character, which makes it possible to talk about its supranational character. The multi-level legal system and the presence of regulatory legal acts, which are universal for member states, are also an argument in favor of its separation from a purely domestic legal system. The next reason for such a position can be the fact that the EU Court is aseparate institution of the EU, which is empowered to consider cases, including claims by individuals and legal entities in the civil and commercial spheres, as well as the function of interpreting EU regulations. Therefore, the implementation of such judicial proceedings is determined by independence.

It should also be noted that one of the EU's activities includes the development and implementation of general principles and standards of judicial proceedings for their further implementation in the civil process of both the EU and member states. In view of this, it can be seen that civil justice goes beyond the borders of only a certain country.

Taking into account the outlined concepts, as well as the theoretical and practical aspects indicated in the research, in order to formulate the category of EU civil process, it is advisable to proceed from its dual nature: on the one hand, the influence of the European Union on the harmonization of the legislation of the member states with the aim of deepening cooperation between them, on the other, - the existence of a separate set of legal norms that regulate civil procedural relations. In view of this, the following definition can be proposed: EU civil process - the procedure for judicial cooperation of member states in civil and commercial cases, as well as the procedure for consideration and resolution of such cases, established by the system of  EU legalacts.

At the same time, the main features of the civil process of EU include: independence,which consists in the presence of separate legislation in the field of civil process and separate institutions, in particular the EU Court; subsidiarity, which defines the interaction of the EU as an association and its member states to achieve the effectiveness of the administration of justice in civil and commercial cases; is based onthe principle of proportionality of the general interest in ensuring the effectiveness of the EU civil process and the interests of the member states, which consists, inparticular, in respect for their national legislation and legal tradition.

Key words: civil procedure, European Union, standards of civil procedure, EUCourt, judicial cooperation.

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