Shumylo Mykhailo

Yearly journal of scientific articles Pravova derzhava
Volume 34 (2023), 445-456 p.

DOI: 10.33663/1563-3349-2023-34-445-456

Shumylo Mykhailo. Presumption of Employment in Non-Standard Labour Relations on Digital Platforms

The article discusses the problematic aspects of employment on digital platforms. Using the example of the Glovo courier service, the author analyzes the legal regulation of these labour relations in Ukraine and abroad. The study reasonably proves that in the delivery relationship, there is a presumption of employment, and therefore automatic recognition of the relationship between the courier and the Glovo digital platform as an employment relationship. This fact does not need to be established in court. Unfortunately, the Ukrainian experience is not encouraging: not only are these relations not regulated by law, but the courts refuse to recognize them aslabour relations. The article draws the following conclusions.

(1) The lack of legal certainty leads to various consequences: non-payment of taxes to the state budget and unified social contributions, which has an impact today and also has a delayed effect in the future. Although it is common practice in Ukraine for such drivers or couriers to be registered as individual entrepreneurs, and while this partially resolves the issue of paying taxes and fees, the issue of labour and legal protection remains relevant.

(2) The analysis of the decision of the Supreme Court of Spain provides additional arguments in favor of the need to enshrine in the national labour legislation the presumption of an employment relationship in the field of courier services provided through a digital platform, in particular, Glovo.

(3) The national court practice is only beginning to be formed in the area of establishing the fact of labour contractual relations on digital platforms. There is an law contracts. To change this paradigm, the greatest hopes should be placed on the Supreme Court, which, with its quasi-precedent-setting decision, can adjust and set a new tone in establishing the fact of labour relations.

(4) Maintaining the status quo will have short- and long-term negative consequences,contributing to a situation of permanent violation of social and labour rights ofemployees, which directly contradicts both the Constitution and Ukraines Euro-Atlantic integration aspirations. 

Key words: labour relations, non-standard forms of employment, non-standardlabour relations, presumption of employment, establishment of the fact of labourrelations.

References

1. Servis Glovo zastrakhuvav kurieriv v Ukraini URL: https://www.epravda.com.ua/news/2019/09/5/651316/ [ukr.]. 

2. Kuriery Glovo vdruhe vyishly na protest v Kyievi. Shchoyde ne tak? URL: https://hmarochos.kiev.ua/2019/07/27/kur-yery-glovo-vdruge-vyjshly-naprotest-v-kyyevi-shho-jde-ne-tak/ [ukr.]. 

3. U Kharkovi pomer 20-richnyi kurier Glovo,y akoho zbyv avtomobil. URL: https://hmarochos.kiev.ua/2019/07/30/u-harkovi-pomer-20-richnyj-kur-yer-glovo-yakogo-zbyv-avtomobil-video/ [ukr.].

 4. Irene Fedriani. La leyRider cumple un año entre amenazas de incumplimiento y frentes judiciales
URL: https://www.rtve.es/noticias/20220812/ley-rider-cumple-ano/2395641.shtml. 

5. La Inspección de Trabajo multa con 79 millones de euros a Glovo por utilizar falsos autónomos
URL: https://efe.com/economia/inspeccion-trabajo-multa-con-79-millones-uros-glovo-por-falsosautonomos/.

6. Josep Moreno Gené. Presunción legal de laboralidad del trabajo enplataformas digitales de reparto: ¿Y ahora qué? URL: https://revistas.uma.es/index.php/REJLSS/article/view/13825/14834 7. Indyvidualna podatkova konsultatsiia DPS Ukrainy4626/IPK/99-00-07-05-01-06 vid 09.11.2020 r. URL: https://lv.tax.gov.ua/media-ark/news-ark/443714.html [ukr.]. 

8. Rishennia Shevchenkivskoho raionnoho sudu m. Kyievavid 15.09.2021 u spravi 761/35866/19.
URL: https://reyestr.court.gov.ua/Review/100718898 [ukr.]. 

9. Rishennia Pecherskoho raionnoho sudu mista Kyieva vid 26serpnia 2022 roku u spravi 757/13693/22-ts URL: https://reyestr.court.gov.ua/Review/105914085 [ukr.]. 

10. La Sala de lo Social del Tribunal Superior de Justicia deAsturias. STSJ Asturias 1607/2019, 25 de Julio de 2019. URL: https://www.poderjudicial.es/search/openDocument/0b968c107b39887d. 

11. Josep Moreno Gené. Op. cit. 

12. La Salade lo Social del Tribunal Supremo. 3350/2020, 18 de Mayo de 2021.
URL: https://www.poderjudicial.es/search/AN/openDocument/fdd70355a8904e09/20210628

<< Back