Bondaruk V. O. Providing degree the Doctor of both laws in Zamoyski Academy (1594–1784)
The first known precedents granting academic titles and degrees in Europe were known since the 11th century. University of Bologna in 1130 was given the first Doctors degree which was equivalent to Master’s level degree. Only from the sixteenth century on legal, medical and theological faculties of universities weightier becomes the degree of Doctor.
Initially were received a bachelor’s degree, which was granted after the study of rhetoric, grammar and dialectic (trivium) at the Faculty of «liberal arts». On the basis of a bachelor’s degree, after mastering kvadrium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory) – appropriated a Master of Arts degree. The highest achievement in the educational and scientific process student-researcher was considered the doctoral degree as the basic awards of level his erudition.
Particular interest is the process of obtaining of doctoral degree in Zamoyski Academy (1594–1784) – institution created for ethnic Ukrainian lands within their membership of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Doctoral promotion procedure regulated by «Modus promovendi ad II, Lauream» which were adopted by college of professors in 1635 and initially spread only to doctoral candidates in philosophy, but later as well – for the promotion of law and theology.
The reason for admission to the examination were published thesis of doctoral exams that have a common name «Decisiones, Positions, Propositions». According to the «Modus» tests of examination defined in two stages: tentamen (general exam on the right of canon and Roman) and examen (legal solving various types of quests).
Examen could last two days – one day Roman law, the second – canon law. Of particular importance was attached to issues of examiners. The first day of the questions were by Chancellor, and the second by Dean. Also allowed questions from the commission of professors.
24 hour break applicant had used to thinking about asked questions.
Affordable striking example of relevant promotion is the thesis «Decisiones juridicas – civiles ex Libro I Institutionum imperialiu ...» (1774) by Konrad Badowski – Civil rights and philosophy listener. Based on «Institutions of Justinian» applicant considered the concept of justice, jurisprudence and law.
Daniel Nyko сontinued review of the «Institutions» in their doctoral thesis for promotion, which was elaborated question the existence of nature law and justice. Special attention is also assigned a way of explanation statutes, separation of the law to private and public, natural, Divine and law of peoples.
Actually the content of such doctoral works and gives an idea as to the doctoral level requirements and the overall level of the academy. Building on scientific grounds doctoral degree of a certain class of persons is a significant phenomenon of legal development as integrating immigrants from various mostly eastern lands of the Commonwealth. Sometimes combined academic or scientific ambitions or snobbery, Zamoyski Academy perform culture and creative role for these lands and contributed to their development in general and in particular legal.
Key words: providing doctoral degrees, providing the degree the Doctor of both laws, «doctoral promotion», Zamoyski Academy.