Skrypniuk O. V.
Skrypniuk O. V. Legal Status of the Acting Members (Academicians) of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: Stages of Development and Present
In article centenary experience of formation and development of legal status of the acting members (academicians) of NAS of Ukraine are investigated. Formation of the special status for the most outstanding domestic scientists and criteria of their definition began in 1918 in the Ukrainian state with creation of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Evolution of this status at the time of UNR, USSR, the period of independent Ukraine, determination of category of the academic scientists, their rights and duties are traced.
In the conditions of the Soviet academic system there was a class approach to formation of the case of academicians and ideological factors of activity of academy. During the Soviet period there were several stages of improvement and specification of legal status of the acting members of academy, an order of stages and conditions of their election, forms of their activity.
Considerable attention is paid to realization of the status of the acting members of academy during mass repressions to which many famous scientists of Ukraine underwent. The governmental decrees and other normative legal acts of the post-war period directed to improvement of legal status of academy of Sciences of USSR, its members, authorized requirements and tasks for the purpose of activization of activity of academicians in scientific institutions are analyzed.
The important place is allocated for the analysis of provision of the Charter of Academy of USSR about deprivation of an academic degree for the activity of the acting members directed to “harm” to the USSR. Despite existence of negative tendencies, the academies concerning activity and its members during mass terror, ideologization of scientific process, subjectivistic and forcible methods and management of the academic science, academicians were chosen, as a rule the most worthy scientists of Ukraine.
Legal status of members of NAS of Ukraine in the period of independence was defined by standards of the charter 1992, 2002 and 2016. It is noted that a legislative basis of modern legal status of academicians of NAS of Ukraine is the Law of Ukraine “About scientific and technical activity” of April 14, 2016. Legal status of the acting members (academicians) of NAS of Ukraine is based on the principles which are the general for academies and national scientific organizations of the majority of the countries of the world.
Key words: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the acting member (academician), legal status, stages of formation, a basis of functioning, the right and a duty of the acting members of academy.