Gorbatenko V., Kukuruz O. The Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences: history of formation, peculiarities of functioning, cooperation with Ukraine
The main stages of the formation and development of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences during its over 200 years of functioning are considered in the article, because the Ukrainian scientific literature does not have enough information about the academic activity of this institution. There are analyzed different periods of Academy’s activities. First of all, periods are divided based on the name of its – Cracow Learned Society (1815–1872), Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow (1872–1918) and current name – Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences (after 1918). Besides, the years of the largest activity of the institution, or vice versa, of its insignificant activity, have always been associated with the degree of independence of the country in a certain historical period are indicated.
The activity of the Cracow Learned Society is marked by the influence on it of political events (J. Wyrozumski), by a gradual academisation – the transition from the private legal form of activity to the public legal form (P. Hübner). In the description of the period of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow mentioned the special activity of the historical and philosophical department, in particular, the publication of 78 volumes of the history of the Republic of Poland (M. Hoszowska). The activity of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences was marked by its significant contribution to the development of Polish science and international cooperation in the interwar twenty years (J. Piskurewicz).
In activities of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences distinguish period (1939 – 1989), when it was deprived of scientific autonomy, resources to conduct scientific activity (P. Hübner), when the scholars were forced to live and work in a communist political system, that was imposed externally (S. Grodziski). The article focuses on the year 1952, when Polish Academy of Sciences was founded in Warsaw as an alternative to the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences (Cracow). Also sighted 1989, when the independence of the Republic of Poland was restored and Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences was able to intensify its activities. The author focuses on the position of P. Hübner in distinguishing between the concepts of «dissemination of science» and «popularization of science».
It has been shown that Polish scholars often had to defend the scientific autonomy of the institution from the encroachment of the authorities of the countries under the jurisdiction of which periodically came Cracow. It was found that Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences always cared about the basic conditions of state formation – Polish history, Polish language, culture, preservation of cultural heritage; paid a lot of attention to the dissemination of scientific knowledge in Polish society, continues to do so and also conducts active international cooperation, including with Ukraine. The content of joint scientific events of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences and V. M. Koretsky Institute of State and Law of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are disclosed in this article.
Key words: Cracow Learned Society, Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow, Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Jagiellonian University, academisation, dissemination of scientific knowledge.