Bobrovnik S.V. Legal anthropology: formation and scientific status
Improving the human factor in the processes of society and the State necessitated analysis of various social phenomena, including the state and law on the basis of anthropological philosophical approach, defined by modern scholars as the philosophical basis of the study which is being legal persons.
The aim of this publication is to analyze the genesis of the formation of theoretical and methodological foundations of anthropology and determine its scientific status.
The term “anthropology” appeared in the works of Greek philosophers and means in Greek “science of man”. This term is formed doctrine aimed at comparing people, including people of a physical type.
The result was the formation of science historical anthropology, which is the first stage of legal anthropology. It is widespread in the early 70th century. based on the British ‘social anthropology’ and American ‘cultural anthropology’, united under the name “ethnology”.
Anthropological knowledge has been successfully used in a variety of practical situations. So special importance today gets applied anthropology in various aspects. Applied Anthropology focused on the application of the results of theoretical research in specific historical, economic, institutional, political and military (war) situation.
Legal Anthropology formed almost simultaneously (about the second half of XIX century) across Europe as part of the universal history of law and the kind of applied anthropology. The original interpretation of legal anthropology, first grounded G. Mayne in his work “Ancient Law” (1861), there were in England nearly 1920 years.
Legal anthropology – the science that considers man as a socio-historic creature in its legal dimensions and characteristics, ie legal anthropology – the science that studies the legal existence of the peoples of antiquity to the present day.
Variety is the status and legal anthropology, which can be defined as a methodological approach to the study of law, based on the human dimension of legal phenomena.
Laying the foundation study nature, nature and human activity is a universal anthropology methodological approach social phenomena through knowledge of nature, nature and human activities.
In modern legal literature has spread legal definition of anthropology as an applied science, estimated at studying the social functions of law, the consequences associated with the adoption and implementation of public life in the new law.
Keywords: anthropology, scientific approach, teaching, legal anthropology.