Yavir V. The Reintegration of the Temporarily Occupied Territories as a Task for Ethnonational Politics of Ukraine
The content and essence of the phenomenon of reintegration, scientific approaches to the definition of reintegration into Ukrainian and foreign sciences are studied. On this basis the optimal definition of reintegration for Ukraine has been proposed. The main causes of reintegration delay of the occupied territories – ARC, the self-proclaimed DND and LNR are analyzed. The necessity of creating the legal framework of reintegration policy, positioning it as the idea of consolidation within state ethnonational policy of Ukraine is pointed.
Without the study of theoretical and methodological foundations of reintegration policy, without understanding of this political andlegal phenomenon, without determining the location (positioning) policy reintegration into the ethnonational policy of Ukraine it is not possible to develop effective model for reintegration of occupied parts of Donetsk and Lugansk regions, and Autonomous Republic of Crimea in the Ukraine.
The problem is almost unexplored in Ukrainian science. First, we turn to the definition of reintegration. Political dictionaries define reintegration as 1) restoring a whole; 2) the re-unification of the previously split unit; 3) inclusion, involvement in a community. Ukrainian and foreign views also demonstrate that the term reintegration in sociology and political science is often used in the sense of “adaptation” and “consolidation”.
In this context, the closest concept to reintegration is ethnocultural consolidation. For Ukraine the most relevant is ethnocultural consolidation of society that combines elements of national, ethnic and cultural unity. Ukraine is a multiethnic states with a complex historical legacy and significant regional, cultural, linguistic, ethnic differences that ethnonational policy failed to mingle since independence. And what were the causes of ethno-political conflict and circumstantial factors of disintegration of Ukraine.
Thus the terms of integration, reintegration and consolidation are used as synonyms, their semantic meaning and content overlap. However, ethnocultural consolidation does not fully take into account the realities of ethnopolitical conflict and political-legal, territorial dimensions of reintegration. So, now in Ukraine is a strong request to establish a consistent, structured reintegration policy as an integral part of ethnonational policy, focused on the peaceful settlement of ethnopolitical conflict, territorial integrity and reunification of all territories of Ukraine.
Meanwhile, the role and participation of civil society in the process of settlement of ethnopolitical conflict and reintegration problems are gradually decreas, its members are abstracted, lose landmarks, frustrated, focus on solving their own problems.
Currently occupied territories (the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, DNR, LNR), and their populations are isolated from the Ukraine for more than two years and therefore require a number of political and legal mechanisms of integration, adaptation to Ukrainian realities within the policy of reintegration. The delay of reintegration process can lead to irreparable ethnic and political consequences.
Reintegration should become consolidation idea that will unite Ukrainian multiethnic nation regardless of ethnic origin and residence. However, the current Ukrainian society is artificially split on the base of ethnopolitical conflict regulation and reintegration. The process of reintegration of Ukraine is artificially deactualized on the background of other seemingly more pressing problems and challenges.
Thus, ethnic policy of Ukraine needs substantial revision and amendments that are taking into account the current realities of ethno-political conflict and its peaceful resolution, rights protection of national minorities in the occupied territories, the need for political and legal support their reintegration into the Ukraine.
Key words: reintegration, ethnonational politics, consolidation, civil society.